MIAMI – Today in Aviation, the prototype of the Airbus A350 took to the skies for the first time in 2013 from Toulouse–Blagnac Airport (TLS), Toulouse, France.

The Airbus A350 is a long-range wide-body jet aircraft designed and manufactured by Airbus. In response to the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Airbus proposed the first A350 concept in 2004, which was a version of the A330 with composite wings and new engines.

Due to a lack of market backing, Airbus switched to a new “XWB” (eXtra Wide Body) design in 2006, powered by Rolls-Royce Trent XWB turbofan engines. In September 2014, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) granted the A350 its type certification, which was followed two months later by certification from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

It has a new fuselage with a nine-abreast economy cross-section, up from the A330/eight-abreast A340’s cross-section. It shares the same type rating as the A330.

A The initial A350 concept, based on the A330. Photo: By Source, Fair use, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=55573826

History


At the start of the new millennium, Airbus had initially dismissed Boeing’s allegation that the Boeing 787 Dreamliner would pose a severe threat to the A330, claiming that the 787 was merely a reply to the A330 and that no more action was required.

When airlines pressed Airbus for a competitor, the “A330-200Lite” was proposed, a version of the A330 with superior aerodynamics and engines similar to those found on the 787. This variant was supposed to be announced during the 2004 Farnborough Airshow, but it never happened.

However, during a private meeting with prospective customers on September 16, 2004, Airbus president and chief executive officer Nol Forgeard confirmed the consideration of a new project. Forgeard would not reveal the project’s name or if it would be a completely new design or a tweak to an existing product. Airbus committed €4bn on a new airplane design in response to airline displeasure with this proposal.

And so, the authorization to offer for the A350 was approved by Airbus’ shareholders, EADS and BAE Systems, on December 10, 2004, with a 2010 service entry expected.

A partially-complete A350-900 XWB (destined for Finnair) on the Toulouse assembly line, December 2014. Photo: Bernd K, CC BY-SA 4.0

Design


The A350 shared the same fuselage cross-section as the A330, as well as a new horizontal stabilizer. The A350 was supposed to be a 250- to 300-seat twin-engine wide-body aircraft based on the design of the existing A330. Under this plan, the A350 would have changed wings and new engines while sharing the A330’s fuselage cross-section.

The fuselage was to be made mostly of aluminum-lithium rather than the carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) fuselage used on the Boeing 787 as a result of a contentious design. Two of Airbus’s main clients, International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC) and GE Capital Aviation Services, publicly criticized the original A350 design (GECAS).

The revised aircraft was given the designation “A350 XWB” on July 14, 2006, at the Farnborough International Airshow (Xtra-Wide-Body). Singapore Airlines decided to order 20 A350 XWBs within four days, with options for another 20 A350 XWBs.

A plan of the A350 XWB’s new nose and general arrangement inside the forward fuselage. Image: Luis E. Contreras, CC BY-SA 3.0

The proposed A350 was a new design with a bigger fuselage cross-section, allowing seating arrangements ranging from eight-abreast low-density premium economy to ten-abreast high-density seating for a maximum passenger capacity of 440–475 depending on the version. The Airbus board of directors approved the A350-800, -900, and -1000 variants’ commercial introduction on December 1, 2006.

Airbus describes the A350 as “the most modern and efficient aircraft.” The aircraft’s adaptive wing design, which was inspired by birds, morphs while in flight to achieve optimum aerodynamic efficiency by optimizing wing loading, reducing drag, and cutting fuel burn.

Additionally, the type is made up of over 70% of innovative materials, including carbon composites (53%), titanium, and contemporary aluminum alloys, making the A350 the company’s first airplane composed primarily of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer and creating lighter, more cost-effective aircraft with lower maintenance requirements.

There are two versions of the airliner: The A350-900 can carry 300 to 350 passengers over a 15,000-kilometer (8,100-mile) range and has a 280-tonne (617,300-pound) maximum take-off weight (MTOW); the lengthier A350-1000 can carry 350 to 410 passengers and has a maximum range of 16,100 km (8,700 nmi) and a 319 t (703,200 lb) MTOW.

The A350 demonstrator painted like carbon fibre weaves. Photo: FlugKerl2 – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0

Certification


On September 30, 2014, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) granted the A350 type certification. EASA authorized the A350-900 for ETOPS 370 on October 15, 2014, allowing it to fly for more than six hours on a single engine and making it the first airliner to be licensed for “ETOPS Beyond 180 minutes” prior to entering service.

Airbus was granted regulatory permission for a Common Type Rating for pilot training between the A350 XWB and the A330 later that month. The FAA granted the A350 certification on November 12, 2014. The EASA published an airworthiness directive on August 1, 2017, requiring operators to power cycle (reset) early A350-900s after 149 hours of continuous power-on time.

Qatar Airways’ first A350-900 XWB (registration: A7-ALA) after the first commercial flight to Frankfurt Airport. Photo: Kiefer. from Frankfurt, Germany – Qatar Airways Airbus A350-941 A7-ALA 15.Jan.2015 First commercial service Doha-Frankfurt, CC BY-SA 2.0

Operations


The first A350-900 began service with Qatar Airways (QR) on 15 January 2015, followed by the A350-1000 with the same launch client on 24 February 2018.

Over the next 20 years, Airbus was set to win more than half of the 250-300 seat aircraft market, which was predicted to total 3,100 aircraft. The 245-seat A350-800, based on the A330, had a range of 8,600 nautical miles (15,900 kilometers) whereas the 285-seat A350-900 had a range of 7,500 nautical miles (13,900 kilometers).

As of May 2021, there were 915 A350 orders, 425 of which had been delivered, and all were in operation with 39 different operators. It replaces the A340 and competes against Boeing’s long-haul twinjets, the 787-10, 777, and 777X. With 55 planes in its fleet, Singapore Airlines (SQ) is the largest operator of the type.


Featured image: A prototype Airbus A350-900 XWB (registered as F-WXWB) during its first flight. Photo: Don-vip – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0. Article source: Airbus, BBC.