MIAMI – Today in Aviation, Airbus Industrie was formally established as a Groupement d’Intérêt Économique (Economic Interest Group or GIE) in 1970. It was created by a government initiative that originated in 1967 between France, West Germany, and the UK.
In the 50s and 60s, although many European aircraft were revolutionary in their own right, production was limited for European air-framers. On the other side of the pond, things looked different for American aircraft manufacturers. There were three main reasons why the US was ahead.
First, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and Lockheed had benefitted from the sheer size of the US, which helped to popularize air transport. Secondly, they benefitted from an Anglo-American agreement in 1942 entrusting the production of transport aircraft to the US. Thirdly, US manufacturing had established its WWII legacy as “a profitable, vigorous, powerful and structured aeronautical industry.”
During the 60s, several European aircraft manufacturers had drawn up competitive designs for a new aircraft to compete with Us aircraft, but they were all too aware of the risks of such an endeavor. The European industry began to understand that cooperation was the key to producing an aircraft capable of transporting 100 or more passengers at low cost over short to medium distances.
The Formation of Airbus Industrie GIE
Negotiations soon began on a European collaborative approach and the major European airlines discussed their requirements informally at the 1965 Paris Air Show for a new ‘Airbus’. Five years later, Airbus Industrie GIE was set up as a consortium of European aviation firms formed to compete with American manufacturers.
The initial shareholders were Aérospatiale, a French company, and Deutsche Airbus, a West German company, each with a 50% stake. The name “Airbus” was taken from a non-proprietary word used in the 1960s by the airline industry to refer to a commercial aircraft of a certain size and range, as the term was linguistically appropriate in French.
Aérospatiale and Deutsche Airbus each took a 36.5% share of manufacturing jobs, 20% for Hawker Siddeley, and 7% for the Dutch company Fokker-VFW. Each company was responsible for delivering fully equipped, ready-to-fly aircraft sections.
In October 1971, Spanish company CASA purchased a 4.2% share of Airbus Industrie, with Aérospatiale and Deutsche Airbus decreasing their combined shares to 47.9%. British Aerospace gained a 20 percent share of Airbus Industrie in January 1979, which had absorbed Hawker Siddeley in 1977. The majority of shareholders reduced their shares to 37.9%, while CASA held its 4.2%.
The Airbus A300
The Airbus A300 was intended to be Airbus’ first aircraft to be designed, produced, and marketed. The “A300” mark started to be applied to a planned 320-seat, twin-engined airliner in early 1967. Roger Béteille was named Technical Director of the A300 development project following the 1967 tri-government agreement. According to Airbus, Béteille insisted that a high level of technology was to be built into the A300 to give it the edge over competing aircraft.
The newly-appointed Technical Director formed a labor division that would be the basis of the development of Airbus for years to come.
France would manufacture the cockpit, flight control, and the lower center section of the fuselage; Hawker Siddeley, whose Trident technology had impressed Béteille, would produce the wings; West Germany would make the forward and rear parts of the fuselage, as well as the upper center section; the Dutch would create the flaps and spoilers, and soon-to-be full partner Spain would produce the horizontal tailplane.
A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed in London on September 26, 1967, by the West German, French, and British governments, allowing for ongoing development studies. Sud Aviation became the “lead company” that France and the UK would each have a work share of 37.5%, with West Germany taking 25%. UK-based Rolls-Royce would manufacture the A300 engines.
Béteille spoke years later of the importance of technology and recalled how beneficial the mix of cultures was. “The basic idea of Airbus has always been to compete against established manufacturers. We had to bring something more. That something more was daring to use advanced technology wherever it could bring economic results. We had to take more risks of failure than the established manufacturers. But we had the ability to make use of different experiences, education, ways of looking at things.”
Airbus Aircraft for All Sectors
The A300 made its maiden flight in 1972; in 1974, its first production model, the A300B2, entered service. The launch of the A300, while overshadowed by that of the Concorde, was the seed of what Airbus is today.
Airbus’ founding partners Béteille and German engineer Felix Kracht shared a vision for the future of the company. They knew that to succeed, Airbus would have to produce more than one aircraft; it needed to offer a family of aircraft covering all sectors.
Airbus SE is now a multinational aerospace company and the result of the most important international restructuring of the European aerospace industry, the creation of the GIE consortium of Airbus Industrie in 1970.
The ‘SE’ in the name means it is a Societas Europaea, which allows it to be registered as European rather than Dutch. As of 2019, Airbus is the largest aircraft manufacturer in the world according to airliner orders.
Featured image: Airbus A300B2-103 – Airbus Industrie. Photo: Mike Freer (GFDL 1.2 http://www.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/fdl-1.2.html or GFDL 1.2 http://www.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/fdl-1.2.html), via Wikimedia Commons. Article sources, Airbus, Forbes, Airways.