MIAMI – Hello everyone, and welcome to a new episode of the Airways Profile. For this episode, we’re going atop the control tower to our special guest Patrick DeWaal and to what it means to be an Air Traffic Controller.
Patrick, first question: what’s your name and your role in aviation?
My name is Patrick DeWaal. I am an Air Traffic Controller at the Salt Lake City TRACON (S56).
Okay. We already have an acronym. How did you end up being an Air Traffic Controller?
For me, it started when I was 4 years old. My mom is from the beautiful and amazing country of South Africa. We were on our way to Johannesburg, South Africa to be with family. Our first stop was in Chicago O’Hare, where we were about to board a TWA 747 to London.
I was looking out the window at the gate, like any other kid, and I saw all the planes and the control tower. I just turned to my parents and said I wanted to work up in the tower, so I could watch planes all day. Ever since that moment, I have known what I have wanted to do. It was the easiest and best decision of my life.
You cannot see me, but I am smiling right now. What’s your story? You saw that tower, decided you wanted to see planes every day, and then what happened?
I attended and graduated from, the University of North Dakota. It was during a time where the hiring was forecast to start happening. It was unknown as to how soon after graduation that we would receive our call up. At the time, if you graduated from one of the CTI schools (there were only about 10 on the list at that time) and were not hired in 2 years, you were no longer eligible for hire.
This was a scary and nerve-racking moment for all of us in the program. I graduated in May of 2006 and I moved back home to Salt Lake City, Utah. I was home for about 6 months and received my letter, I was assigned to McCarran Tower in Las Vegas, NV. I was very excited!
About a month later, I received a phone call saying that I was being placed back into the hiring pool. I would NOT be going to McCarran Tower. I called the Human Resource office about once a week after that to see if I had been selected again.
Nearly 3 weeks later, I made my call and was met with happy and surprising news. I was to report to the Honolulu Control Facility (HCF) in Hawaii, with a class date at the Academy. When we graduated from our CTI schools, we were asked to select our top 5 states. This would allow us to be in places that we wanted to be as much as possible. My list consisted of Hawaii, Utah, Nevada, California, and Alaska.
Receiving the news that I was going to be controlling in Hawaii was a dream come true. I went to Oklahoma City, where I went through all of the tower training. I reported to Honolulu in July of 2007.
On the first day in the facility, I was informed that I would not be going to work in the Tower, instead, I would be specializing in Island Approach/Center Radar Approach Control (CERAP). This meant I had a lot of hard work ahead and that my specialization would now be Radar. I was ready to get to work.
What happened next? Be ready because I am going to ask you about your training!
I was given maps, charts, and binders full of information. I had airways and sector charts hung in my apartment that I would stare at all day and memorize. Training began as a D-Side controller.
This position consists of managing the movement of flight progress strips, coordinating with the tower controllers on all the islands, timing the departures for correct non-radar oceanic separation, and coordinating with Oakland ARTCC for in and outbound flights to the Far East, South Pacific, Alaska, Canada, and the USA mainland.
After D-side training was complete, I reported back to Oklahoma City for Radar training. I returned back to my new island home after 3 weeks of intense training. I can still remember my first transmission ever made to a pilot was to ”FDX1414 Heavy”. You don’t forget things like that. [I am still smiling]
After a year of training, I was a Certified Professional Controller (CPC). It was all thanks to the team of controllers that trained me and supported me through the process. I got to see and be a part of so many incredible experiences. The controllers aren’t just another group of people that you happen to see on a daily basis. You became a part of the Ohana that was HCF.
The Ohana of my own started to become a bigger focus for me. I was 3,000 miles away from my family. After a few years, I made the decision to transfer back to Salt Lake City, Utah. I was selected by the Salt Lake TRACON (S56). I knew this airspace well. I grew up here. I learned to fly out of Salt Lake City International Airport. I consider Salt Lake City International Airport as MY airport. I love it here! I have been controlling in Utah for almost 12 years.
I have made so many friends through this career and not just the controllers. I have so many friends that are pilots, that I get a chance to work with from time to time. I have taken part in the Flight Deck program every year since it has been offered. Such a great way to learn and get to know what our flight crews experience on a daily basis. Where we can learn to be more effective as controllers.
I still have never worked in a Control Tower, but it never kept me from going up in Honolulu and here in Salt Lake, to be a kid and watch planes on my breaks. The love has never been lost and in fact, it has only grown.
Okay, we need to be a little bit less romantic here, otherwise, it’s not gonna end well! Technical question: what is the role of an ATC specialized in Island Approach/Center Radar Approach? How does the work differ from a ground/departure Air Traffic Controller?
A controller specialized in Island Approach is working in what’s known as CERAP (Center Radar Approach Control). It’s just like working as an Enroute (Center) Controller. Our separation standards are greater than that of a TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control). This is due to the limitations of the type of Radar that we use.
CERAP/Enroute are using Long-Range Radar that updates our radar scopes about every 12 seconds. We are required to maintain 5 miles of lateral separation. Vertical separation is dependent upon the equipment of the aircraft. This would determine whether we separate an aircraft by 1,000 or 2,000 feet.
You are working with a lot of flights at cruising altitudes. In Island Approach we did exactly that, but you begin to work the sequencing to Honolulu and we managed the approach controls into the outer islands. We also worked Maui TRACON from Island Approach, which made it fun and prepared me for coming to Salt Lake City TRACON.
I think I am overwhelmed by the number of acronyms of this interview. So, if I understood correctly, you line up the planes for landing, and then you handle them to the actual tower in HNL. What’s a TRACON then?
For a TRACON, a radar scope can update as quickly as 1 second, or up to 6 seconds. Terminal radar is much more precise, due to the nature of the work being done. The easiest way to know as a passenger when you have entered the Terminal area, is usually about the time a pilot informs the passengers it’s time to sit down, fasten your seatbelts, put tray tables up, and seats in their upright position.
The plane is going to start moving…descending, turns, speed adjustments. Aircraft are being lined up and sequenced for their respective runway. Timing of all control instructions is critical. This ensures safety, an orderly flow, and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS).
In my career, I have now had the opportunity to work both functions of Radar. Working in Honolulu was definitely the highlight of my career. Working aircraft up and down the island chain, working with foreign and domestic carriers coming from all over, and sometimes getting to be a tour guide when a pilot requested for the scenic island chain route into HNL. Salt Lake City is my home though.
Salt Lake City is a very challenging airport to work in due to the mountainous terrain that we are surrounded by. It keeps you on your toes and focused at all times. There is nothing I would change about it. It’s beautiful here and we hear about it from pilots all the time. With mountains comes challenges. Everyone, controllers and pilots, are prepared and ready to go.
Okay, now things start to clear up a little bit. Tell me about the work: how are you organized at the TRACON? How do you get your role for the day?
In Salt Lake TRACON, we have nine separate radar positions to mitigate the workload. When we are trained in this facility you are trained for all 9 radar positions. When we report to work, we are assigned a position to report to. Dependent upon the traffic, not all positions are open.
Instead, we combine certain sectors during the day and split them when necessary. We have departure sectors, arrival sectors, and valley sectors. These valley sectors also have at least one satellite airport that they work traffic in and out of as well, both IFR and VFR traffic. We have 9 other small airports in our small airspace, including one Air Force Base, which is very busy.
So you are managing an entire sector of the airspace, maybe more than one. How can you keep track of everything? What’s the challenge?
It’s all about managing the workload and ensuring a controller isn’t in position for more than two hours. This will ensure a controller is refreshed and recharged after a break. Generally, breaks range from 20 to 30 minutes. We are on shift for eight hours a day, but can legally work up to 10 hours if needed.
With that being said, a standard controller workweek is five days for 40 hours. With the ability to work up to 6 days a week for 60 hours, facility dependent.
Okay, let’s go back to the training, so maybe I can learn some tricks. How is the training? Despite knowing all the regulations, what can be used to train the brain for the ATC job? You said you needed to remember what you had said to a plane 10 minutes before, and meanwhile, talking a lot with other planes.
This is a great question to ask. There are so many different techniques to keep yourself sharp and help remember all the information. I had an instructor at the University of North Dakota that taught me to practice my traffic calls while I was driving. I didn’t see how that would help at first, but I still find myself doing it out of habit to this day as I drive to and from work.
Flashcards are a big training tool that has been utilized as your work on memorizing identifiers, fixes, approaches, and departures in our airspace. If you are fortunate enough to report to the facility with another person new to the facility, there is always a lot of quizzing each other.
A training program is always being reworked, redesigned, and always changing. So training is always improving. You need to know what the most effective way is for YOU to study because everyone is different. One person can read the 7110.65 (Controller Bible) and know exactly what to do. But someone else may need to read sections and then apply the rule in a simulator to see how it works and how to make it work.
Like any job in aviation, STUDY is the key to success. We are all human, so we have a lot of information and resources at our sector to pull up information that we need. For example, looking at an approach that isn’t frequently used.
Before a new controller reports to the control room to start training, they will go through several series of simulator scenarios to develop their skills and understanding of the position. These simulations are extremely important and helps give a platform for the new controller to stand on. It then becomes a collaborative team effort to see to the success of the training.
Wow. I didn’t know there were so many behind-the-scenes. Time for my first thank you since I’m discovering a lot of interesting stuff here! I have to ask though: what’s the most important skill an ATC needs to have?
That’s a loaded question. There are so many. The ability to multi-task is extremely important, because of how fast and busy things can develop. Seeing your traffic and knowing exactly what you are going to do and how you are going to get them there. In other words, pre-planning is a great skill to have too. You need to be able to see a 2D environment and see it in 4D, see how the traffic moves through the sky, and keep aircraft separated.
This job isn’t a solo operation. Aviation is one of the biggest team efforts in the world. The pilots, the controllers, the different controlling agencies, mechanics, etc., all play a role in maintaining safety in the sky. So being able to work with people is crucial because you are a part of that aviation team.
How do you marry your personal life with a job like this one, which requires you on duty at night/morning/afternoon, even on Thanksgiving?
This is probably one of the hardest parts of the job. We work a rotating schedule of shift work. For example, if you work Monday through Friday, your shifts go from night shifts to day shifts as the week progresses. If you are in a 24-hour facility, you will finish your workweek by returning to work on Thursday night and working through the night into Friday morning (if it’s your turn, depending on how many controllers a facility employs for the midnight operation).
I have been controlling now for 15 years and my own family can’t remember how my shifts work. It definitely took some getting used to. Aviation is not always a 9-5 job. Planes are always flying, day and night. Holidays do not exist in our world. There are no days off because it’s Christmas. We report to work to keep an eye on the sky.
Spontaneity is a hard thing to come by in this industry, so, when the family decides to take a family trip, I am not always able to go. Being a husband and a father, I love that I am home all week and I get to spend time with my wife and son…and my daughter ETA in February 2022. We love to travel and it’s important to take time off when you can.
How do you determine if you’re going to spend Thanksgiving with the family or at work? Is it a matter of luck, is there a fixed scheme, or do you work by seniority?
Aviation is ruled by seniority and it’s no different in the Air Traffic world. Your days off are determined by your seniority in a bidding process. Vacation time is also bid by seniority and it’s always done a year in advance. Imagine trying to plan for trips without knowing where you want to go. You bid your time and then you figure out what you want to do.
Sometimes the trip doesn’t work because things could be booked up for that week of leave you bid for. It’s difficult to impossible to change days around to accommodate a trip. My own wedding was a team effort of controllers and supervisors stepping up to help cover shifts because life events aren’t always planned out. It was awesome to see all the love and support from my facility during that time.
It can be tough to manage shift work, but if you embrace it, it’s just like any other job. Pilots are gone for days at a time, and that I am sure can be tough. I get to return home every night unless I have to work the midnight shift. It’s all a matter of perspective.
That being said: a trick question. What’s the biggest mistake a person in your position can make?
Like any job out there, mistakes can happen. Human factors are something that we train hard to help prevent, and to create procedures to prevent and reduce those effects. Aviation is all based on team and crew resource management, meaning there is a system to work together and close the loop. It’s all about checks and balances. We are imperfect people working a job that demands perfection every single second.
Teamwork is very crucial to success in the aviation industry. In the world of air traffic control, separating planes is our primary duty. If we were to discuss the biggest mistake that could be made as a controller, it would simply be stated as not maintaining the required separation between two aircraft or terrain.
A primary task for an approach controller is to sequence and lineup aircraft for the downwind to another controller, or work a sequence to the runway. If you want to see what ultimate teamwork looks like you need to look at the lineup for the runways at night. You can see the landing lights of all the aircraft being lined up and spaced perfectly. That’s the visual representation of teamwork between controllers and flight crews.
When adverse conditions like weather become major factors, it can make sequencing much more difficult. The routings in and out of the airspace may not be usable. This creates a much higher risk of human factors, due to non-standard flows in and out of the airport. A controller uses the basics of the job, but those are most important. These three standard operations are vectors, altitude assignments, and speed control.
A common mistake that is made is a sequence that isn’t always the correct call. It’s how we react to those situations that make you the controller that you are. It will make the work a little harder for a controller, but keeping it safe is paramount in every decision.
Let me ask you this. You are at work. You are managing all those airplanes up and down the skies, along taxiways. What is your biggest fear?
Honestly, it’s something that I never really thought about or think about. You really can’t in this job. If you allow those human emotions into the control room, it can affect your ability to do the job. It’s not to be ignorant of fear, but it’s more of a way to respect the job.
Your training gives you the skills and tools to be that calm voice to a nervous pilot, to develop a plan at a moment’s notice, and to keep everyone safe. It’s like I explain to my trainees, you will never know everything because there are always changes, improvements, and advancements in technology.
The most dangerous thing a controller can do is to think they know it all. I think that is true for any profession in aviation or a safety-critical position. It keeps you humble. The job demands respect and hard work.
In order to answer the question in a simple fashion, my biggest fear would be to allow myself to think I know everything.
Have you ever managed an emergency?
Yes, I have. Many. I have had VFR pilots encountering IMC conditions, hydraulic failures, landing gear concerns, flap issues, minimum fuel problems, engine shutdowns, disoriented pilots, smoke in the cockpit, unruly passengers, equipment failures, but most commonly we have medical emergencies.
The one I always remember is a flight inbound to Honolulu from Guam. The pilot reported they wanted priority handling for a 4-year-old that was being transported to Honolulu for medical care, but the child’s condition deteriorated rapidly en route.
Working together with a controller working Honolulu approach, we were able to change our runways in use, so the pilot could literally fly straight-in to runway 4R. We actually received a message from the pilot, on behalf of the family. They wanted to inform us that the child was stabilized by the paramedics that met the aircraft at the gate and that any delay would’ve resulted in a sad outcome.
I wasn’t married or had kids of my own at that time, but it allowed for that “human” side to sink in. You understand the importance of your job and your ability to act at a moment’s notice.
You have the ability to always bring here amazing stories. Now, since we are talking about beautiful things, like fear, mistakes, and the human factor, let’s move to something more current. How has COVID-19 impacted your life?
COVID-19 has luckily not impacted the health of my family or myself. We are very blessed. Like everybody else, we have all felt the impact of COVID-19 in many ways. Reports of the COVID spread were all over the news and there was a lot of uncertainty. Then Salt Lake City was hit with an earthquake in March of 2020.
As the world shut down, we were watched as our skies started to clear. We isolated crews to minimize and reduce the possible spread of COVID-19. So instead of our normal controller shift rotations, we created a new dynamic COVID schedule to increase social distancing at work. We stopped training and sent our trainees home with no idea when they would come back. Like most major airports, we saw an increase in cargo operations, as the world fought against the virus.
We saw repatriation flights coming from all over the world. Airlines like Ethiopian, Egyptair, British Airways, Air Canada, and Fiji Airways all made appearances at Salt Lake City International Airport. It’s hard to say that it was exciting to see all these foreign carriers flying in and out of our airport, but it was. The world was looking out for one another, bringing people home.
Now that things have opened up more, our trainees are back in the operation, and training is back in progress. We are feeling the impact of not having trainees certified to help with staffing. This means there is a lot of hard work being done across the nation to train the next generation of controllers. COVID is changing and I am sure there are still obstacles ahead. Which may or may not bring about more changes in an already ever-changing world.
When we spoke for the first time, you told me that you had a special relation with Airways. How so?
This is a fun question! I have been obsessed with aviation since I can remember. I had toy planes…but not just any toy planes. I had to have airlines. My parents bought me a TWA 737-200 toy when we were in Washington D.C. at the Air and Space Museum when I was just a small boy. Little things like this just fueled the fire that was already there.
I could never have enough. I was always looking for more ways to learn and to grow in this passion. I was in love with the Southwest Airlines Shamu 737. My favorite animal on a plane, does it get any better?! That’s when I received the best birthday present as a kid.
I was given the Airways Magazine that had all of the specially painted Southwest planes on the cover. The other gift was a subscription to the magazine which just kept getting renewed. It was this magazine that I fell in love with as a kid and still to the present day. It was my escape into a world that was my passion.
I would read them cover to cover multiple times. One of my favorite parts was always seeing the new liveries and airline photos in the front. I learned my aircraft types before I was eight, and I would tell everyone at the airport what plane they were flying on. I would point them out in the sky. It was something that I can always thank Airways Magazine for. I will forever be grateful for this magazine.
My biggest goal is to one day have a picture in Airways Magazine or one day make the cover. There are so many amazing photographers out there, so I know it will be tough. How amazing will it be to one day pick up the magazine and see a picture that I took on the cover? You always have to have goals and dreams!
Those are amazing words. Thank you, Patrick, for what you’ve just said.
Now, I am curious about one thing. Does an ATC person look at the sky when he sees a plane, and think about the job even when on vacation?
The easy answer is always YES! I am a plane geek, an avgeek, a plane lover, a plane spotter, and a plane nerd. Whatever you want to call it! I am that person that makes his family go to the airport early because I want to go check everything out.
I am married now and we have a little boy. I want to share with my son my passion for aviation. Taking him to the airport and showing him that view outside the window. That same airport window where it started everything for me. The passion will never die.
I would not have expected a different answer! Now: have you ever wanted to be a pilot rather than an ATC guy?
I love flying! They always said that once you take flight, the sky will always call you back. I first learned to fly out of Salt Lake City International after I graduated High School. I knew that flying was for ME, it wasn’t going to be my career. I wanted to be an Air Traffic Controller and I wanted to fly for fun. I continued my flight training at the University of North Dakota, where I did a lot of IFR flying.
There are times where I wish I could just go sit in the jump seat and fly around for a couple of days, see the world, and just be a part of the crew. We are able to fly in the flight deck twice a year, but the program is currently suspended due to COVID precautions. Since the program started, I have never missed a year.
It’s an incredible experience and such a privilege and honor to be upfront with our pilots. It has allowed me to ask questions and for them to get answers to theirs. That ability to interact and build those working relationships is priceless. BUT I am so happy where I am at and I know I am exactly where I need to be. I am an Air Traffic Controller.
Where do you see yourself in 10 years?
When people ask questions like this, I don’t particularly think about work. It’s no disrespect to the job or the profession. My wife and my kids are the most important part of my life because family is always number one. In 10 years, I will be loving life with Amber, my best friend, and my wife, always wanting to be the best and truest version of myself.
I will be loving every second of being a dad and raising my kids to be kind, caring, happy, friendly, and respectful. We will be taking family trips, taking kids to soccer games, and just taking in the moment as we live it. Just being a family and doing what we can to put some good into the world.
Work-wise, I will be here at Salt Lake City TRACON doing what I do best. It’s my home and I love it here. It’s my sky and I love that I get to work alongside the best pilots and some of the best controllers in the world. You can’t ask for more. I am lucky. I am blessed. Most importantly I am happy and having so much fun! Come fly through Salt Lake and you will see!
You know, I am not a native English speaker. When you work in ATC, I assume you have to deal with a lot of different accents. How are you able to understand everyone? Do you have some tricks (especially for guys who speak English as a second language :P)
Your English is perfect Francesco! [I am pretty sure you are lying, but thanks!] I learned to be very understanding of pilots attempting to do their best at using English on the radio, while I was in Hawaii. You have a very diverse collection of airlines and pilots that fly in and out of the islands. Air Traffic is and can be very fast-paced. Pilots are great about managing the radios very quickly and efficiently.
When English isn’t a pilot’s first language, it’s important to let the pilot know that they can take the time they need to manage the radio. I found that when I would put myself in their shoes, trying to communicate in a second language, it helped me be so much more understanding and patient.
I want that pilot to be a part of my team, so I want them to fly their plane and know that we are working together. The key is to allow pilots to take their time with a radio call and not feel pressure to be fast.
The best way I know how to do that is to change the rate at which I speak to them. It lets them know that I understand and I want to be on their team. The world is an amazing place and aviation bridges those gaps. We look out for one another and we need to be the best ambassadors we can for our respective homes.
So, no tricks, just speaking slowly. We are almost at the end of the interview, so I have to ask:
Favorite airport: HONOLULU INTERNATIONAL AND SALT LAKE CITY INTERNATIONAL (I am just biased like that 😊 ) – (Obviously!)
Least favorite airport: If I had to choose one, it would be Chicago O’Hare…I am sorry ORD! I have had to overnight in the terminal, failed connections, etc.
An airport where you would love to work: Such an easy answer…SEATTLE TACOMA INTERNATIONAL! I love Seattle and have a lot of friends up there!
The maximum number of planes under your supervision: It was while I was at HCF. The sector that all the USA mainland arrivals and departures go, is by far the busiest. At times you could have up to 30 to 40 aircraft at one time.
The phrase you use to say most, except for the callsign: “Have a great day/night and a safe flight” as I switch pilots to the next frequency. I am pretty much just trying to make friends with all the pilots that fly in and out of Salt Lake!
The phrase you hear most, except for the callsign: Salt Lake has 3 runways, during arrival banks, we structure our arrivals to the outboard runways. Landing runway 35 isn’t ideal for commercial carriers going to the gates due to the long taxi. So, we hear requests for runway changes a lot. There isn’t one particular phrase we hear the most because everything is said over and over.
Your favorite shift: My favorite shift is 6:00 am to 2:00 pm…it’s nice to finish early in the day and go spend time with my wife and my son.
Favorite aircraft model: The easiest question of the entire interview…the Boeing 787, all variants. The first time I flew aboard a Dreamliner was from Melbourne, Australia to Los Angeles. I was on United 787-9, registration N19951. The whole morning was an event leading up to stepping onto the Dreamliner for the first time. I was a kid!
I then planned a flight deck trip that got nicknamed “Chasing the Dreamliner” by my co-workers. I had to set myself up for the domestic flight of United’s 787-8 between IAH and DEN. UAL1126 Boeing 787-8, registration N26909. It is by far the coolest most memorable experience in my career. Flying on your favorite plane and in the flight deck…you can’t top that!
The most important callsign you’ve ever called (Air Force one maybe?): Air Force One! I have controlled it twice, once for George W Bush and then for Barack Obama. I recently controlled Air Force Two for Mike Pence. Pretty cool opportunities to protect our nation’s leaders. My wife says it’s Taylor Swift’s private jet! My wife is the world’s greatest Taylor Swift fan!
A job you would have done if it wasn’t for aviation: You can’t ask that question, because I was born to be in aviation! I always knew I had a door open to me with Union Pacific Railroad, because that’s where my Dad worked for his entire career.
The railroad family is very strong. It’s an amazing company and it would be an honor to work for them. It was always 2nd on my list to follow in my Dad’s footsteps. We love transportation apparently!
Patrick, thanks. This was an amazing interview, and I am truly grateful to you for finding the time to produce this piece with me. Now, last but not least: Is there anyone you wanna say hi to?
Hi to my wife Amber and son Andrew!! They are my rock and my life’s purpose! Hi to my Dad (Craig) and my Mom (Maire “Moya”), Nick and Diandra (my brother and sister)! I am blessed with the best!
My fandom hello goes to everyone at Airways for letting me be a part of something so special and personal. To go from reading this magazine as a kid, to being a part of it! What an honor!
Hi to Robert Jolley, my wife’s uncle, who taught me how to see and capture the best of this industry with a camera. I am always learning, but he has been so patient and taught me so much about cameras. He is an avid airplane spotter and avgeek!
Hi to all my friends at Salt Lake Airport Ops, especially the OG, and my friend, Josh Cheney. Without Josh, I wouldn’t have had all these amazing chances to go out onto our airfield. Where I get to be up close and personal with these machines I love so much!
I have gained a lot of friends through social media as I share my passion for aviation on Instagram. I created RADRCONTACT as a way to be a part of my aviation community, encourage the next generation of aviation enthusiasts, learn from pilots and mechanics, and share the love for everything our industry has to offer. So come say hi!
Most importantly, ALOHA to my best friend in Hawaii, HNLRAMPER! He was the one that encouraged me and motivated me to become a part of this community. I have him to thank for a lot of what has happened. I can say without a doubt he is one of those friends that lasts a lifetime.
Mahalo! A Hui Hou!
Thank you everyone for being here with us. Thank you, Patrick, for your amazing stories, for your time, and for the effort you’ve dedicated to this new episode of Airways Profile.
See you soon with another episode of Airways Profile. Take care of yourself, and each other.
Featured image and all photos: Patrick DeWaal